A wide variety of glass compositions are used to seal metals for electrical and electronic components. Here the available glasses may be grouped according to their thermal expansion which must be matched with the thermal expansions of the respective metals so that sealing is possible without excessive strain being induced by differing levels of expansion.
For sealing to tungsten, in making incandescent and discharge lamps, borosilicate alkaline earths-aluminous silicate glasses are suitable.
Sodium borosilicate glasses may be used for sealing to molybdenum and the iron-nickel-cobalt (Fernico) alloys are frequently employed as a substitute, the amount of sodium oxide permissible depending on the degree of electrical resistance required.
With glasses designed to seal to Kovar alloy, relatively high contents of boric oxide (approximately 20%) are needed to keep the transformation temperature low and usually the preferred alkali is potassium oxide so as to ensure high electrical insulation.
Where the requirement for electrical insulation is paramount, as in many types of vacuum tube and for the encapsulation of diodes, a variety of lead glasses (typical containing between 30% and 60% lead oxide) can be used.
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On average, every family in the UK uses around 330 glass bottles and jars each year.